SECTION 2: Country Profiles
Chapter 1: Afghanistan
Extract Paragraphs - the following
extracts are taken at random, from a few of the countries included, to try to give some
idea of the depth of information available within this publication.
Extract Paragraphs - the following extracts are taken at random, from a few of the countries included, to try to give some idea of the depth of information available within this publication.
Bahrain - There is an increasing interest being shown in LPG- and CNG-fuelled vehicles and it is expected that this trend will increase at an accelerating rate over the next decade, but the diesel versus petrol ratio is likely to remain relatively constant, with the possibility of a very slow move toward diesel. It is expected that there will be government pressure to encourage the use of unleaded fuel in the near future.
Egypt - Local assembly has had a significant influence on the market in the past as locally produced vehicles have been marketed at more competitive prices based on duty support for locally manufactured product. However, in the wake of the Asian economic crisis, many VMs are dumping excess inventory into Egypt, which has resulted in imported vehicles undercutting those assembled in the country. This has been exacerbated by the increasing availability of small cars with engine sizes that can take advantage of the most beneficial duty structures.
Iran - There are three duty free zones Kish Island, Qeshm Island and Chabahar Port all situated on the south coast and connected to major international waterways via the Gulf and the Oman sea to the Indian Ocean. There is easy access to major air, sea and ground transportation routes at local, regional and international levels, with proximity to regional markets for the import of raw materials and intermediate or manufactured goods. There is also good access to local and neighbouring markets, especially those of western, southern and central Asia and the Gulf. They are supplied with reliable public utilities and services with availability of skilled and non-skilled manpower at wages competitive within the region. Good access to abundant energy sources including natural gas (second in the world) sand crude oil (fourth in the world). Unique in the Middle East, there is a wealth of mineral resources required for industrial production and export.
Israel - Languages spoken are Hebrew (official) and Arabic (used officially for the Arab minority). English is the most commonly used foreign language. Ethnically, the society includes the following groups: Jewish (83%), and non-Jewish (mostly Arab) (17%). Religious affiliations of the people of Israel include Judaism (82%), Islam (mostly Sunni Muslim, 14%), Christian (2%) and Druze and other (2%).
Jordan - On the majority of parts, duty is 30% of CIF value and GST is 10% of the CIF value plus duty. Rolling chassis for buses pay customs duties of only 20% of CIF but raw materials pay the applicable duties. The finished product attracts 10% sales tax. When this is compared with the 30% duty on imported buses (and since some components required have a 40% duty level), then there is little protection or support for the development of a local body assembly industry.
Kazakhstan - The climate is considered continental, with cold winters and hot summers. It stays arid to semi-arid, depending on the area of the country. Kazakhstans terrain ranges from low areas near the Volga River to the Altai Mountains. In between are the plains in western Siberia and the oasis and desert in Central Asia. Resources indigenous to the area include major deposits of petroleum, coal, iron ore, manganese, chrome ore, nickel, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, gold, and uranium.
Kuwait - The Sabah family has ruled the State of Kuwait since 1751. The 1962 constitution contains detailed provisions on the powers and relationships of the branches of government and on the rights of citizens. Upon the death of an amir, the crown prince assumes his position. A new crown prince is then selected by members of the Sabah family from among the direct descendants of Mubarak the Great. Under the constitution, the designation is subject to the approval of the National Assembly. Since independence, successions have been orderly, in both 1965 and 1978. The country was transformed into a highly developed welfare state with a free market economy.
Oman - Duties and taxes: Import licences are required for only a few restricted items, such as alcoholic drinks, firearms, narcotics and explosives. There is no sales tax but customs duty is 5% of the CIF value for new and used vehicles and parts.
Pakistan - Agriculture in Pakistan accounts for 22% of the GDP and over 50% of the labour force. The worlds largest contiguous irrigation system is in Pakistan. Major crops include cotton, wheat, rice, sugar cane, fruits and vegetables. Livestock products include milk, beef, mutton and eggs. Livestock raised includes poultry, goats, sheep, cattle and asses (totalling 186m head) Pakistan is self-sufficient in food grain production.
Saudi Arabia - Parts: Non-genuine parts are imported in vast numbers, container loads of brake linings alone arriving at the ports each month. Parts come from a variety of sources since Saudi, having the largest vehicle parc and the money to purchase parts, attracts product from virtually every source around the world. Initially the franchised dealers were blind to the threat and so made little attempt to counteract the increasing penetration of their market. However, as recession bites harder there is a growing awareness of the fact that the after sales departments must be the lifeline when new unit sales are depressed.
Turkey - Chrysler Kamyon (now Aksam), Turkey, was established in 1964 as a joint venture with Chrysler, but the latter sold its share to the local partners in 1978. The three key distributors each market the range of products under their own dealer brand Desoto, Dodge and Fargo. The product range includes 4-ton pick-ups in 4x2 and 4x4 single-cab and double-cab variants, a range of medium trucks and Hino heavy articulated and drawbar trucks up to 40 tonne GVW. Average share of the pick-up and truck market in Turkey is 20%. It has developed and manufactured its own product and has also assembled components from (and represents) Perkins Engines, UK; Dana Spicer, US; Eaton, UK; ZF, Germany; TRW, US; Automotive Products, UK and US; and Jellinghaus, Germany. In 1995, Chrysler Kamyon concluded a licence agreement with First Motor Company of Egypt to supply CKD truck and pick-up kits for local assembly.
UAE - The UAE labour force is employed in industry and commerce (85%), agriculture (5%), services (5%) and government (5%). It is estimated that 80% of the labour force is foreign nationals. Major industries include petroleum, fishing, petrochemicals, construction materials, some boat building, handicrafts and pearling. Export commodities are crude oil, natural gas, re-exports, dried fish and dates. Major export partners include Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Iran and India. Import commodities are manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment and food. Major import partners include the US, the UK, Germany and Japan.
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